Modern trends in wooden housing development
Modern trends in wooden housing development
"Design your own house" – this dream comes to people’s mind very often. Starting from large modern house plans to small house plans– this is a popular tendency nowadays. Many people change their city life on the permanent stay in wooden homes. The opportunities of wood home construction industry are limitless, so that every person has the possibility to make his choice. In general, there is a visible tendency in growing percentage of houses, in which the building material is timber. It does not matter, whether wood construction is a historical norm, as in Russia and Belarus, for example, or it is a new material as for countries with traditional stone buildings. If this tendency is so popular today there might be some reasonable explanation for it.
Every person is rational, and when making a decision he applies common sense and chooses the best. All his actions are justified. That is why people decide on timber, as an excellent natural material with only positive influence on people’s health. Timber let the oxygen pass through its structure. This creates a permanent heat and air exchange in the rooms of wooden house, keeping comfortable microclimate in the house all year round.
This material has good insulator parameters. If we compare two walls, the first made of laminated beam with thickness of 20 cm and a brick wall with a layer of facing plaster with total thickness of 30 cm, the first one will have a lower conductivity. Moreover the house of timber has a light weight – it is three times lighter than brick construction.
This feature allows you not to be so strict about piece of land choosing, as well as save money on the foundation construction. The simplicity of building a wood home saves you time and your money resources: a small period of wooden house building, cheaper foundation, no need to decorate house walls, cheaper heating system.
Taking into account all the advantages of wood home architecture, we also need to mention some negative characteristics of wooden houses, that we regret to inform exist:
- The complete duration of shrinkage process may last for about 3 years (shaped timber and glulam beams has shorter period). However wooden house can be settled in after 6 months.
- The specific nature of wooden walls to let the oxygen pass through, result in rising of the walls. That is the reason for thorough choice of decorative coating, not all materials will be suitable.
We named the main characteristics of traditional timber material. But in this article we would like to describe modern technologies in the industry of wood home construction. The progress is moving rapidly, and specialists nowadays strive to create new materials out of traditional timber with new quality characteristics.
Glue laminated beam is a well-known and well-proven material. Its popularity can be explained by most good characteristics of the material. Nowadays it still faces the greatest demand. However, today specialists notice the increased popularity of log homes, due to the environmental friendliness and durability of the material. All this engineer the development in the sphere of the materials for wooden building.
Laminated rounded log has combined in itself all positive characteristics of glulam beams and traditional logs. Now to the excellent features of glue laminated beams we can the following additional features:
-The shrinkage process is minimal. In terms of time duration and building proportion the shrinkage is 1-2% over 1 m². Indoor finishing work may begin without delay. There is no limitation in choosing finishing materials.
- It has even temperature conductivity than other materials, like stone and concrete. For example, temperature conductivity and sound insulation in wood houses is in two times better than in that of brick.
- Laminated rounded log is not subjected to cracking.
- It is an excellent material in areas with seismic activity.
In other words it is as good as glulam beams, but has some improved features. For better understanding the common and different features of these materials, we are going to describe technological peculiarities and the process of its production step by step.
It is important to understand that the quality of the product largely depends on using the modern equipment of high quality. It is essential to carry out precision machining of the surface finishing, which will guarantee first-class performance of the product in the future. The process of laminated round logs manufacturing consist of the following stages:
- The log is cut into lamellae. Lamellae do through the process of artificial seasoning, which is the main key to the future strength of the material, as it protects timber from cracking.
- On the next stage lamellae are glued together and pressed under heavy hydrostatic press. Boards should be connected by glue on natural base.
Sometimes unfairmanufactures use bad structure glue. But the natural composition of the glue activates the process of diffusion, so it very important. Because of this reason laminated rounded log is very strong and it is very difficult to break it – almost impossible. The completion phase includes roundup and blading for a particular wooden construction – this means windows, door and locks cutting.
So it is evident that laminated rounded log has mostly positive features, and is a high-quality material for modern house plans. You can choose this material for building a wood home, as it has attractive appearance, is environmentally friendly and it allows saving on outdoor and indoor finishing.
Unipanel - an engineering lumber or, also known as, laminated wood, is a material manufactured on the basis of wood and resin. Today it becomes more and more popular. It has a light weight, it is also eco-friendly and is easy in construction, besides it is short of flaws most timber materials have - all this make unipanel on a more advantageous stage. When dealing with wood materials people face many problems, as depending on the influence of the atmosphere the wood may take different deformation. And it is important to be a skillful specialist to intuitively understand how the timber should be treated in order to get the desired form. Unipanel is a new material that has the shape of wood but goes not goes through deformation.
The process of unipanel manufacturing is the following: the layers of panel scale board along wood are divided into separate small elements cut by blind slots that overlap along the depth of the panel. The minimum width of the cuts ensures that they act as a dilatation joint. As a result, specialists get a construction made of reinstated wood with layers that consist of fractional elements. They are cut according to physical and mechanical properties of the wood.
The material can be applied in many construction projects: houses, bath houses, interior partition walls.
It is a very strong material. Test results show that it can be compared to concrete.
House of unipanel has the same advantages as all buildings, made of wood:
- the mechanical strength of this material is more than 200 kg /cm², this index is compared to that of concrete;
- in any temperature and humidity terms its dimensions arestable and its shape is not a subject to deformation;
- performs high thermal insulation characteristics;
- is perfect for building construction in seismically active areas;
- is resistant to harmful resistance;
-high quality of fire resistance of the material.
One of the biggest advantages the unipanel has is that it can be manufactured form a low-quality pine and hardwood. The process of production today is fully automated – all the defects are cut out then the material is merged along the entire length. After these actions specialists proceed with the profiling of the board and get a fully-glued panel. Modern equipment has a very high speed of operation.
As opposed to glued laminated beams this material can be used for industrial constructions.
Unipanel is a prototype for CLT wood that has world recognition but is sold at a rather high price. Unipanel is much cheaper. This material is not shrinking, it does not leak and deform.
Engineering lumber present frame construction, which consists of glued wooden beam elements. Due to this structure, unipanel is absolutely protected from dimensions changes. The number of wood elements layers in the structure of the unipaneland its dimensions can be different. Nowadays, modern equipment can produce the maximum size of 1200cm in length, 300cm in width, the thickness of the panel varies from 30cm to 100cm. This material can be used for construction of walls with high loadbearing capacity as well as a finishing material.
Summarizing up all the information, we need to mention the following characteristics of unipanel:
- compression capacity – 20 mPas;
- heat conductivity factor - about 0.08 W;
- specific gravity - 300 kg /m³;
CLT-technologies (Cross Laminated Timber Technologies)
CLT panels are relatively new type of material in wood house construction. But in many countries it is commonly used has world. A big contribution in the development of technologies foe eco-homes construction was made due to the "green movement". According to it is "good" means harmless to our planet.During the Cross Laminated Timberpanels manufacturing harmful emissions into the atmosphere are minimizes. CLT is more often used to replace laminated beams, concrete, steel structures and other.
The process of CLT panels manufacturing reminds that of unipanel. According to the technology cross-gluing boards are put under pressure. In result specialists get a multi-layer cross-laminated panel of compact design. The dimensions are the following: the length is over 240 cm, the width 350cm, the thickness may vary from 6 to 40cm. As a material for CLT panelshardwood tree and soft wood are used.
This material is not a subject to diffusion, which creates a comfortable and healthy atmosphere in the room. Besides these moments CLT panels have the following good features:
- seismic resistance;
- fire resistance;
- simplicity of construction, reduced time of building.
In other words, CLT is a strong material, which is resistant to fire and deformation.
Woodenbricks is a strip with interlocks, with the help of which the connection is made. The construction of walls becomes very simple: no glue or jointing component is used while constructing the wooden house out of this material. A special sealing strip is laid between the elements. This technology makes the construction process very simple and saves money. The material is mostly used for low rise building construction: for bearing walls,internaland external walls, for the construction of baths.
The production process of bricks: raw material (timber) is carefully polished. After this processingthe walls get flat finished surface, which does not require further processing and finishing.
Wooden bricks has many advantages:
- there is no process of shrinkage, the house is ready for further repair work inside the home and decoration and settling;
- bricks has a close contact between each other, which means that such walls do not pass wind;
- the interior and exterior wall surfaces don’t need are finishing work;
- using wooden bricks reduces the cost of the process of building the house, as the construction of this material eliminates the use of large machinery;
- if we compare the cost to that of laminated beams, it is in 2-2.5 times lower.
It is evident that wooden brick is a good eco-friendly material that is resistant deformation, if has different size and has a relatively low cost. Easy and quick construction of walls out of this material simplifies the whole process of the house construction.
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