Heat pump - price and reviews
Heat pumpHeat pumps are devices that absorb heat from the environment: atmospheric air, groundwater, thermal springs, as well as non-freezing water bodies — rivers, lakes, etc., and then give it away by heating air or water in home heating systems.
For the transfer of heat in such systems, a refrigerant is used, usually freon. Almost all of the electricity consumed by the heat pump is consumed by the compressor for pumping freon inside the system; most of the refrigeration units are similarly arranged. In the cold season, the body enters the house from a heat exchanger located underground, deeper than the level of frost penetration. In summer, excess heat is removed from the house in the opposite direction. The observance of the optimal operation of the heat pump is monitored by the control and automation systems. The energy efficiency of such heat supply systems depends on what heat sources are used, the higher their temperature, the greater will be the efficiency.
These two wooden houses, "Маяк" и "Чёрный лес" built by Archiline in Belarus, are equipped with a heating and water heating system based on a heat pump and a warm water baseboard. Heating is the warmth of the earth and air! The system requires a small amount of electricity to ensure the operation of the controller. Order a house and Archiline equips it with a new unique heating system! Click on the photo, see how they look at home inside!
Wooden house – "Маяк"
Wooden house – "Чёрный лес":
When calculating the economic benefits, it is necessary to take into account the prices of electricity in this region, as well as the cost of heating in the traditional way.To the advantages of heat pumps one should add the absence of the need to buy to bring and store a considerable amount of fuel and, as a result, lower costs and release of outbuildings.
Heat pumps are not cheap, but the cost of their purchase and installation (which is higher compared to conventional heating and air-conditioning systems) rather quickly pays off due to low operating costs, as well as significant energy savings.
Benefits of heat pump operationIn our country, only recently began to use heat pumps for home heating, so many still do not know about the innovative technology and the principle of its operation. What to speak about its benefits! Therefore, in this article an ordinary person can get acquainted with the principle of their work and the capabilities of the aggregates.
Benefits:- Heat pumps are economical. They use the incoming energy much more rationally than any modification of the boiler that burns fuel. A heat pump is an equipment whose efficiency exceeds one. To assess the effectiveness of its work, a special KPT coefficient, the so-called heat conversion coefficient, is used. Another valid term is temperature conversion factor. According to this parameter, it is possible to draw a conclusion about how the heat produced at the output relates to the energy expended. Example of use: Assume that the CPT of the selected model is 4. This means that when 1 kW of energy is supplied, we have 4 kW of thermal power, or an increase of 3 kW, resulting from the operation of the compressor.
- Extensive use. For work, only a source of dissipated heat is needed, and finding that will not be a problem even far from urban infrastructure. Land and air are also everywhere, even where there are no high-voltage power lines and no gas pipelines. Thus, the equipment can be operated regardless of climatic conditions, fuel supply or stable gas pressure in the pipeline. All that is required for work is 2-3 kW of electricity. Their lack will not be a big problem either: diesel or gasoline drives can be used to operate the compressor in a number of models.
- Ecological cleanliness. The heat pump is beneficial not only from an economic point of view. It also saves the health of those who use it. During the operation of the unit there is no combustion of the fuel, which means that toxic oxides of nitrogen, sulfur and lead are not formed. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are not released either. This means that traces of sulfurous, nitric and orthophosphoric acid, as well as extremely harmful for the environment phenol compounds do not fall into the soil. Heat pumps have a positive effect on the environment as a whole. Their use reduces the cost of CHP to generate electricity. In this type of equipment, freons are used in which chlorine derivatives of hydrocarbons are completely absent, therefore, they do not harm the ozone layer of the Earth.
- Universality of use. Heat pumps have the property of reversibility, that is, reversibility of action. Therefore, if necessary, they can be used not only for heating, but also for cooling the house by taking heat from the air. In the warm season, the abstracted energy is often used to heat the pool.
- Reliability and safety of work. The equipment has a high degree of fire and explosion. There is simply nothing to explode in the structure: there is no open fire, no flammable gases or explosive air mixtures. There are also no toxic components in the interaction with which could be poisoned. During operation, no node is heated to such an extent as to cause a fire. When the unit stops working, there are no irreversible processes, in the form of freezing of the working environment or the occurrence of an emergency. The danger of the heat pump is no more than the danger of a household appliance, and when properly used it tends to zero.
A number of features characteristic of the operation of heat pumps:Heat pumps can be used only in insulated buildings: the heat loss of the building should not exceed 100 W / m2. The more efficient the insulation will work in the house, the more efficient the pump will work, and the more economical will be its use.
The coefficient of temperature conversion (CPT) is inversely proportional to the difference in temperature between the input and output circuits in the house. On this basis, it is necessary to choose low-temperature systems for heating a house with a heat pump. For example, such as warm water floors or air heating, in which the heating medium, according to sanitary and hygienic requirements, has a temperature not higher than 35 ° C.
Types of heat pumps and operating featuresCurrently, people are constantly trying to find ways to save on energy. That at the minimum energy consumption to receive the same amount of heat in rooms. One of these solutions have become heat pumps. These are units designed to extract heat from the environment. According to the heat sources used, pumps can be distinguished: water, earth, air. The vehicle for transporting heat to the heating system is a liquid that does not freeze at fairly low temperatures.
A bunch of earth-liquid organizes the delivery of heat to the pump, which feeds the heating system using special equipment, from the ground. These are collectors or probes. Collectors - used for large areas (probes - for small ones). These devices must be lowered lower than the ground freezes.
A bunch of air-liquid using evaporators, compressors, fans, delivers heat, taking it from the air.
A bunch of water-liquid extracts heat from the water. Alternatively, pumping of deep waters from the ground is possible. The water, cooled in the pump, goes back through a separate well.
The principle of operation of the heat pumpThe composition of such a heating system is as follows: the heat source, the pump, and devices that distribute heat and accumulate it, using low-temperature heating. Simply put, the lower the temperature of the fluid in the pipe, the better the performance of the system.
The principle of operation of such systems is similar to the operation of the air conditioner. Simply put, if cold air blows in one direction, then hot air blows in the other, according to all the laws of physics. That is, if we cool something, something necessarily heats up. The unit, taking thermal energy from sources (earth, air, water), giving in return the cold that arrived for heat exchange fluid.
Having considered various types of pumps, it can be explained that air systems enjoy a clear advantage due to the availability of air, while other sources still have to be reached by digging up the ground or breaking a well for water. On the other hand, the temperature of the water and the earth remains almost unchanged throughout the year, which makes the process of regulating and controlling the system more simple.
As a rule, such systems are designed and installed at the house construction stage, installation at a later time greatly increases the cost of the project, although depreciation costs are rather low. Finance spent on the installation of this system, will return in just two years. The use of a heat pump significantly reduces power consumption. During system operation, it does not need to be monitored, due to the complete safety of the heat pumps in operation. In addition, they are quite compact and have an aesthetic appearance. How not cool, and this is the most economical way of heating, offered today on the market.
Heat Pump Selection AlgorithmIf you decide to install this heating system before you purchase it, you need to take care of the high-quality insulation of the house, because the better the insulation is carried out, the less energy is needed to heat the building.
Next, you need to calculate the required pump power based on the planned heat losses, which can be estimated based on the following data:
- old wooden or brick house with poor insulation - 75W / m?
- the modern house, qualitatively heat-insulated - 50 W / m?
- at independent qualitative warming of wall panels, floors and a mansard - 30 W / m ?.
Assessing your house according to the above criteria, multiply the above figure by the area of housing.
Properly selected heat pump will allow to spend long winter evenings warm.
So, heat collection devices or heat pumps are by far the most progressive source of heat generation.We live in the environment of invisible solar energy that is present everywhere: in the air, on the watery surfaces, in the soil. With the help of modern technology, people can collect it for free and use it for their own purposes. And here the heat pumps will be indispensable and effective tools. These units help to receive solar energy stored in the environment and redirect it to the house. Such systems work well even in severe frosts.
Consumers can choose from the following types of heat pumps, depending on the source of heat collection and, accordingly, its receiver:- air-air;
The mechanism of action of heat pumps is similar to the work of simple air conditioners. Inside the unit, working on cooling, in a special block evaporator constantly boils a liquid - coolant. It absorbs the heat in the room and brings it to the condenser in the outdoor unit. There, the refrigerant emits the collected heat energy to the atmosphere.
The heat pump works on the same principle, only the liquid moves in the opposite direction and, accordingly, carries warm air collected outside the house, inside the room. The heat unit can be represented in the form of a vapor compression cooling system consisting of several parts:
- compression device;
- the condensing element is the key point of any heat pump;
- expansion valve;
- evaporating element.
Gas is used as a refrigerant, freon is ideal. It is fed to the inlet of the compressor. Inside it, the gas is compressed, gradually increasing the pressure and temperature according to the universal law of gases. The refrigerant heated in this way is transferred to a heat exchanger - a condenser - and it is already cooled there, giving away thermal energy to the environment, be it air or water, and then turns into liquid.
Further, at elevated pressure, the refrigerant is passed through an expansion valve, as a result of which the pressure gradually decreases. The compression device and the expansion valve, as it were, divide the internal structure of the heat pump into a zone of low and high pressure. When the pressure drops, some of the liquid evaporates, with the help of which the temperature of the refrigerant is lowered.
The cooled air flow is directed further into the evaporation device, which has access to the external air space, an example is the street heat exchanger. If the air temperature is higher than that of the refrigerant, the liquid will continue to evaporate. Thus, the external heat energy will be transferred to the liquid in the heat pump system. The refrigerant gas will be fed back into the compression device, thereby closing the circulation inside the device.
Coolant under cooling is under a pressure of 10 atm. With such parameters it is able to “suck” heat from the soil. The efficiency of heat pumps is different and is caused by several factors, among which the composition of the soil, their structure, and the depth of soil freezing. It should be noted that it is possible to remove 10 times more thermal energy from water surfaces.
In order to avoid the breakthrough of pipes with a refrigerant, in Russian weather conditions it is necessary to deepen the output of the heat pump by one and a half meters below the frosts border. To heat a house with an average area of about 100 m? need at least 300 m? plot heat collector.
Such units are made in the form of a plastic pipe with a hole diameter of 2–4 cm, they are laid in the form of a loop or a snake, and a spiral installation is also possible. The most important condition for the efficient operation of the thermal circuit is the coverage of the largest possible reservoir area. For calculating the length of pipes use the norm in 2 pog. m pipes for 1 m? useful floor space.
If the area of the plot is small, the heat pump can also be installed, but use a ground probe. To do this, a mine is preliminarily drilled to a depth of 160–170 m, since at such depths the temperature is more or less constant and amounts to about +10 ° C. Probes immersed in the mine are able to supply much more heat.
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